West Nile Virus


West Nile virus (WNV) infects birds and some mammals throughout the U.S. Mosquitoes become infected when they bite a bird or mammal that carries the virus. People may become infected when they are bitten by a mosquito with the virus. Most WNV infections are very mild or cause no symptoms at all. Only 20% of those infected get a mild illness 3 to 14 days after exposure. Symptoms may last 3 to 6 days and consist of a mild flu-like illness with low-grade fever, muscle aching, loss of appetite, vomiting, headache and rash.

A small number of people infected will develop severe infection with encephalitis or meningitis. Encephalitis is infection and swelling of the brain tissues. Meningitis is infection in the fluids that surround the brain and spinal cord. Both cause very severe headache, stiff neck, and sometimes drowsiness or confusion. Other symptoms of severe WNV include weakness, trouble walking, paralysis and seizures. People over 50 years old and those with weak immune systems (HIV/AIDS, cancer, and organ transplants) are at highest risk for severe illness.

There is no specific treatment for West Nile virus. People with only a mild illness recover fully.

Note: The number of West Nile virus cases across the U.S. varies from year to year. For the latest information, go to www.cdc.gov and search for "west nile virus."


This infection can't be spread from person to person or from a bird or mammal to a person. The only way to get the WNV is from a mosquito bite. The risk of being bitten by a mosquito is greatest from April to October. The best way to avoid getting this illness is to avoid mosquito bites.

To prevent mosquito bites:

  • Don't go outside when mosquitoes are most active. This is in the early morning and late afternoon and early evening.

  • If you are outdoors when mosquitoes are active wear socks, long sleeves, and long pants, and use insect repellent. The most effective insect repellent against mosquitoes is DEET (10%-30%). The higher the percentage of DEET, the longer it will last. It is recommended not to use sunscreen that contains DEET because the sunscreen generally has to be reapplied more often than the insect repellant should be. Don't put DEET on the hands of small children who may put their hands in their mouths or rub their eyes. To apply DEET to children, spray on your own hands, then rub your hands over the exposed skin of your child. Be sure to wash off the repellant when you, or your child, will no longer be exposed to mosquitoes.

  • You can spray your clothing with a repellent containing DEET or permethrin. If you do this, you don't need to put repellent on the skin under clothing that has been sprayed.

  • Mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water. Remove breeding areas around your home. Dispose of cans, containers, and tires that may collect water. Clear your roof gutters and be sure they drain properly. Keep window and door screens in good repair.

Home care

If you have been diagnosed with a possible mild case of WNV:

  • Rest until you are feeling better.

  • If you have fever, drink extra fluids.

  • Ask your healthcare provider about using over-the-counter medicine to control pain

Follow-up care

Follow up with your healthcare provider, or as advised.

When to seek medical advice

Call your healthcare provider right away if you live in an area where there are other cases of WNV being reported and you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Fever of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher, or as directed by your healthcare provider

  • Muscle aches

  • Vomiting, loss of appetite

  • Headache

  • Rash

Call 911

Call 911 if any of the following occur:

  • Severe headache, stiff neck

  • Severe drowsiness or confusion

  • General muscle weakness, trouble walking, paralysis

  • Seizure

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